A decentralized network of collective thinking
Kalpagrama is a decentralized blockchain platform that makes it possible for an online community to develop a global knowledge map by incentivizing authors through a cryptocurrency reward system. Users can extract intrinsic meanings from any content available on the Web and build semantic interconnections (links), collectively assessing their accuracy and reliability.
Our mission is to create a tool for understanding and structuring user-generated content in a manner that ensures equal access to the knowledge accumulated by people around the world.
Knowledge is the most valuable resource; and surely those who possess it should by definition be not only the most valuable but also the wealthiest members of society. We aim to create conditions whereby everyone can earn money by contributing to the expansion of the global knowledge map, and local communities can regulate this process and act as a custodian for new knowledge and meanings.
“Kalpagrama” is a compound formed by amalgamating two words: kalpa (from Skt. कल्प) meaning “law”, “space of knowledge”, and gram (from Greek gramma) meaning “record”.
We are at a point where Web 3.0 ideas are no longer just ideas, but are rapidly becoming a reality. No matter how convenient centralized services are, we can see that the result is always the same: censorship, blockings, moderation and the imposition of the alleged "truth". Like any marketplace, social media platforms are places where people's data and information are centralized. Such a result is inevitable because human nature itself is based on centralized systems. With an infinite number of points of view, it is difficult to choose a single one that is undeniably correct, if there is one at all. Typically, the arbiter is the owner of the service, a nation-state, a designated group of experts, anyone really. They determine what is true and what is false. A person striving for power is unlikely to give it up voluntarily. Therefore, decentralized services present an opportunity to exclude the unfair restrictions placed on the absolute majority by the absolute minority both online and in life generally. However, without the informed participation of society in this process, nothing will happen. Decentralization means primarily taking responsibility (whereas currently we have delegated it to intermediaries). This is a very important point, and we believe that society is now ready for the next step. Fortunately, the development and widespread implementation of blockchain technologies, DEFIs and DAOs have made the advent of the Web 3.0 era possible now. As of today, a large number of free services are available to the user on the social network market. However, in return for gaining free access to social media platforms such as Twitter, YouTube and Instagram, we are exposed to all manner of advertising. Free social networks monetize our attention, manipulate our consumer behavior and most importantly give a blurred and distorted understanding of reality. Blockchain is not free either. The user will have to pay for the transaction for each action performed. However, the rules of this "game" are transparent. The user sees how their money is spent and what they get in return. Existing media platforms designed to bring people together are no longer up to their task. Paradoxically, they do in fact the opposite: they just end up alienating people from one another and risk creating ideological divisions.
A Facebook post from Mark Zuckerberg, the founder of Facebook: "Tonight concludes Yom Kippur, the holiest day of the year for Jews when we reflect on the past year and ask forgiveness for our mistakes. For those I hurt this year, I ask forgiveness and I will try to be better. For the ways my work was used to divide people rather than bring us together, I ask forgiveness and I will work to do better. May we all be better in the year ahead, and may you all be inscribed in the book of life."
The Kalpagrama social network unites people in their pursuit of knowledge. You might ask yourself, why is this necessary when we already have Wikipedia which is universally available? The answer is simple. Wikipedia is increasingly politically aligned. It reflects a single point of view of an expert or group of experts whereas the truth is invariably multifaceted. One important difference between Kalpagrama and Wikipedia is that in Kalpagrama, we do not speak in terms of an objective reality since we assume that it does not exist. We can only rely on our subjective perception that is unique to each and every one of us. Each person perceives reality in an individual way and therefore has his or her own idea of the truth. Truth can be examined from different angles, and this should be done by society, not by appointed experts. One important property of information is its reliability. We proceed from the fact that the reliability of information is not a property of the information itself, but a property that it acquires only in the context of the observer. Everyone has their own version of the truth. Therefore, an article in Wikipedia, in our opinion, represents little more than a subjective point of view of an anonymous expert. With Kalpagrama, the community itself is solely responsible for the reliability of information. Each Kalpagrammer is equal - nobody's version of the truth trumps anyone else's. Kalpagrama is completely decentralized, and there is no one person at the head of it deciding what is correct or incorrect. It is the blockchain technology, and the fact that the information is checked by blockchain, that makes it reliable and thus not prone to fakes. The same transparent rules apply for everyone. Along with the reliability of information, there is another big problem: the sheer quantity of information. It is difficult for anyone to analyze and digest such large amounts of information. This is when content aggregators (search engines and others) with their ranking and filtering algorithms come to the rescue. It is not necessary to forbid the truth. All you have to do is to make sure no one can find it. You might think you have come across something valuable and consider yourself fortunate, but you shouldn't cheer too soon. As a rule, information is found in some kind of source, that is, videos, books, articles, etc. Such content can be very voluminous. This is another obstacle to us actually processing this knowledge. Most people will not watch an hour-long video, not even to the middle of it even if a tiny piece of wisdom in that video could potentially end up changing their life. The amount of newly created content in social networks and the way in which we try to digest it has given rise to the phenomenon of clip thinking. With Kalpagrama, it is not the content that comes to the fore, but the meanings. Users find meanings and create semantic nodes and semantic interconnections. Others vote in order to determine just how close they are to the real intrinsic meaning. This process will be described in more detail below. Since the meanings are local, one can explore them with whatever level of immersion he or she deems appropriate. But the main thing is that you can work effectively with them. You watch the content and see the intrinsic meanings. Then, you can confirm or reject them by offering arguments in the form of alternative meanings. Kalpagrama marks up all content on the Internet, highlights meanings and builds interconnections (links) between them. It only superficially resembles the Knowledge Graph by Google, and it has nothing to do with OWL. In the process of creating Kalpagrama, it became obvious that it would be a mistake to describe subjective reality using the method of semantic abstractions. We all perceive the world differently, and our thinking is based on much more complex structures (abstractions). Describing the world with OWL resembles reverse engineering of an alien ship in the Stone Age with the tools of that time. The result will be very different from what was expected. The goal of Kalpagrama is to unite information from various sources but based on common meanings (that is, to integrate information based on a core understanding) and create conditions for faster access to knowledge.
Figure 1. Difference between information and knowledge.
With Kalpagrama, you don't need to watch any content for a long time in order to extract a few shards of knowledge. You can get them straight away. Moreover, you access different interpretations from the community and can add your own ones. You can build links with other meanings. You can delve into any topic and find ways of presenting information that are most convenient for you. So, while reading a book and trying to locate a paragraph where some topic or other is discussed, you can scroll through semantic links to videos that describe the same thing, but in other words. Thus, you end up studying the issue from a variety of different angles, from many different points of view and have a better chance of seeing the whole picture.
We are all unique. We all digest and understand information in different ways. Kalpagrama helps to harmoniously combine all the respective points of view without exception. We all accumulate knowledge throughout our lives. Sometimes only one piece of the puzzle is missing that provides a complete picture; and when it is found, we see suddenly a whole new image arise from the fragmentary data. Kalpagrama intends to provide such an opportunity to obtain all-in-one knowledge in a short time.
It is often the case that we reject the opinions of other people just because our take on the world is lacking the necessary interconnections. And so it is, as the years go by, we remember old conversations where we perhaps denied something only to discover subsequently that we rushed to conclusions. Having the complete picture (the required number of links), a person is able to perceive new information differently. And so he or she is less inclined to get confused easily. Have you noticed how trolls operate when they write their disparaging comments? How easily they manage to discredit information, create a kind of virtual chaos and ultimately undermine someone?
Kalpagrama provides an opportunity to transform these kind of virtual conflicts into mutual understanding through the adoption of different points of view. This should surely result in a more tolerant society where conflicts are less heated and are resolved more quickly. In order to reach an agreement, we all need a platform where everyone is equal, where there are no arbiters and experts and where transparent rules apply. And then it becomes obvious to everyone that people are talking about the same thing but in different words.
In Kalpagrama, the semantic node is the elementary operational unit.
Figure 2. Structure of the semantic core in Kalpagrama.
The content from which the semantic node is extracted can be presented in any form: photos, videos, audio records, texts. The community can vote on how the extracted content corresponds to the meaning specified by the user. More details on voting are provided subsequently. If you have a more appropriate meaning for this content, you can add it. Kalpagrama provides each user with the opportunity to add their own meaning, and the community will vote on the ranking of the compiled meanings.
Figure 3. Ranking of intrinsic meanings in Kalpagrama.
The reverse action is also possible.
Figure 4. Ranking of images in Kalpagrama.
Each time new content or an intrinsic meaning is added, a new semantic node is created on which the community can vote. By voting for a semantic node, users answer the question: "how far from the semantic node is the true, intrinsic meaning? " This is how a collective assessment (score) of the accuracy of the semantic node is formed, how accurately and succinctly the node (the combination of "content + intrinsic meaning") reveals the true, intrinsic meaning being described. The higher the score, the higher the semantic core moves up in the ranking, thus making it possible for users to see the most accurate intrinsic meanings and content according to the majority. Voting in Kalpagrama is different from 'likes'. 'Liking' a video about, say, a war might seem inappropriate. But what if it carries an important underlying meaning for the community? Millions of people could end up watching the said video and according to the way the social network algorithms work, the only way for the content to be ranked higher in web feeds is by assigning 'likes'. Thus, the user is initially thrown into a difficult moral and ethical situation. A 'like' is indicative of the social media user's emotion or support for some author or cause. There are no 'likes' in Kalpagrama. There is instead an assessment of proximity to the true, intrinsic meaning, obtained through voting on a scale from zero to one. Emojis are used to indicate that a meaning is thought to be close to its real, intrinsic meaning. If the user puts an emoji on the semantic core, then he or she strengthens the link between the meaning of the semantic core and the meaning of the emoji. You can use memes the same way.
Figure 5. Use of emojis in Kalpagrama.
You can reject a fake by attaching a link to the semantic node, where the opposite statement is argued. Thus, you can not only vote against this particular meaning, but also substantiate your point of view. When people vote for your rejection, the original fake will go down in terms of ranking. The author of the 'rejection' will receive income not only from those who voted for his or her link, but also from those who voted for the original fake. In addition to semantic nodes and semantic links, the system also contains more complex structures, semantic blocks. Read more about semantic blocks in the user manual.
With Kalpagrama, each semantic node is technically a smart contract, and voting is a method of operationalizing this smart contract. The weight of the semantic node is calculated according to the formula determined by the smart contract. Voting in the system is aimed at assessing the quality of semantic nodes created by users. The community has the right to support the author's semantic nodes or reject it. Now no one can hide reliable information. This blockchain is public and anyone can check the voting history. Voting takes into account the rating (weighting) of the voter which depends on his or her recognition in the community, recognition in the sense of users deem him or her to be well-qualified to comment on said topic. The weighting is not based on the user's popularity but on his or her professional expertise. Not all voting processes are free. At the very least, you will have to pay a transaction fee on the blockchain. If the voting power you have earned in the system is not enough, then you can add some crypto and this will make your vote more significant. At the same time, you should clearly understand where this money will go. First, you defend the intrinsic meaning, that is to say what you perceive to be the truth. Secondly, you will support the authors of meanings who alongside you voted for what they perceived to be the truth. They can support you in the same way. The funds invested in the voting process will accumulate for some time on the semantic nodes. Relatively speaking, once a week, according to a transparent formula, the authors of semantic nodes and content who have made the greatest contribution to the development of this meaning will be determined, and these funds will be distributed amongst them. Thus, the community can function as a custodian for the development of those meanings that are of particular interest at that point in time. Let us briefly sum up this discussion. When working with the system, users are motivated and invest in the development of meanings. Part of the fund is distributed between the author of the content (in this case, the authorship must be confirmed by NFTs) and the author of the semantic node. The other part is accumulated on the smart contract relating to this meaning. Furthermore, once a week, the accumulated funds are paid to those authors who have developed more meanings than others. The minimum amount for voting is the price of "gas" to complete a transaction in the system (at a fraction of the cost). We consider the reward scheme described here to be fair for it is not speculative. In fact, users pay for what they are interested in, for what they would like to see developed, and what they would like to know more about. This happens in a gamified manner and according to transparent rules.
Figure 6. Scheme of funds distribution from voting.
The development of meanings will inevitably lead to associations of users around polar points of view. Users can form communities (DAOs) in order to develop topics of interest together. Users can delegate their contributions to the community which will make it possible for them to team up in receiving distributed funds. Funds from the distribution will go to the community account that will be collectively managed by community members.
DAO members can determine by voting where the funds on their balance will go. This will enable them to not only distribute incomes, but also to invest in the development of their common cause, hire employees, finance projects, research, initiatives, etc.
If you are an author, you can team up with like-minded people and jointly develop certain areas of science and any other topics. The profit is still distributed transparently according to your (creative) contribution to the common cause. The mechanics described above gives an understanding of how the value of creative contributions can be estimated.
Along with DAOs that create content, you can create DAOs that reveal meanings. Their activity is similar to the work of an investment pool, where you delegate your money to the pool, and they subsequently distribute the profit according to the contribution of the members.
Thus, for example, if you do not have the gift of the gab, but agree with someone who can carefully frame what you want to say, then, instead of creating semantic nodes, you invest money that accumulates on meanings. If the meaning-revealing DAOs you invested in win in the distribution of prize funds from the meanings, then you make a profit. When creating such DAOs, the meanings that they are designed to develop are indicated. By investing, you encourage these DAOs to continue to be profitable if the meanings they create are well received by the community.
You can also create voting DAOs. Here, you delegate not funds, but your voice. If you trust a particular DAO and agree on how it votes, then you are investing your vote in it. Hackers and opinion-manipulators no longer need to create armies of bots.
Communities can not only earn through the creation of content and semantic nodes, but also carry out any activity outside of Kalpagrama. In this case, Kalpagrama is simply a platform where such organizations are represented publicly.
Universal DAOs are a convenient tool for those who want not only to unite according to their interests, but also to build a working business
With Kalpagrama, users obtain free access to structured information which is highly reliable, as confirmed in the blockchain.
By voting, users support the development of meanings, authors of semantic nodes and authors of content. Monies received for the meanings are accumulated in the prize funds and distributed once a week among the authors of the nodes who have made the greatest total contribution to the development of a particular meaning.
Thus, it is the online community exclusively that becomes the custodian of the content and meanings relevant to it. No one can hand down trends and impose them on society generally. The online community itself becomes the arbiter mentioned in the introduction.
Authors of semantic nodes are interested in creating high-quality nodes that are of interest to the community at that point in time. The referral system will allow you to receive significant income by posting snippets of semantic nodes in established social networks. In addition, if the content used in this semantic node is purchased using this referral link, then the author of the node will receive a commission fee. You can use your semantic node to refute or confirm other nodes. Thus, if your semantic node is stronger, then your contribution will be recognized as more significant, and you will take part in the distribution of the prize fund of this meaning. Your semantic nodes and links are your personal workshop (this is a subset of the global knowledge graph). You can reuse semantic nodes from your workshop to create new links and meaning blocks.
Content authors in Kalpagrama receive a platform where their content is parsed into many meanings and ample opportunities are created for its distribution. Thanks to prize rewards and the referral system, the authors of semantic nodes are interested in distributing them on the Web, as well as their content. Thus, the only thing an author has to do is provide high-quality content without regard to its promotion. Authors do not need to invest in their content and its promotion. The main criterion for content is its quality. Content does not become outdated since the system is focused on meanings. You can find new meanings in old content. Authors no longer need to release a new video "on the same thing" every day to stay the course. Anyone can buy your content and start parsing it into meanings. Meanings are free, but in order to view all the content in its entirety, one needs to pay (that is of course assuming you decide that your content should be paid for). Content authorship is confirmed using NFTs. The community can also fund content authors directly with donations. Kalpagrama is designed to work with various types of content (videos, books, audio records, images). Neither your content nor your account can be blocked or deleted. The blockchain guarantees this. Bloggers get the same benefits as content authors. We invite bloggers to become ambassadors of the Kalpagrama project on mutually beneficial terms. See tokenomics below for more details.
The content is highly formalized. No social component. The community is not involved in assessing the credibility of the facts. A very small percentage of people create and edit its content. Problems with objectivity.
Videos only. There are no links within the content, only links that are calculated by algorithms and deemed to be relevant. Poor comment system. Statistical manipulation. Limited functionality for interaction between users.
Short videos are the priority. Rigid recommendation system. The functionality of tags is not calculated in an effective way. The content is grouped only by authors (the "blogger-subscribers" format).
Focus on text format. Censorship.
Desktop application only. No social component. Focus on text notes.
Monetary motivation and a pyramidal model of earnings. The rating is pegged against the number of coins, and those with most coins reap all the bonuses tied to the system. The algorithms embedded in the system has resulted in the audience comprising mostly bots. They make transactions solely for profit (high-frequency trading). The content format includes articles only.
A simple paid blogging model. It is interesting only for major content makers with a large audience in common social networks. Low motivation for consumers (all content is paid and closed). Most of the content appears to derive from plagiarism. When you buy it, you don't see what you are buying. Ton is still underdeveloped. It is not a Web3.0 project (just a cryptocurrency payment). It does not provide any advantages over services like Patreon.
Most of them have closed down or have not received wide support ("Everipedia" is an exception, but its functionality does not go beyond the usual "Wikipedia"). The above solutions do not have trademarks of their own. The features are the same as in common social networks, but slower and often paid-for. Difficult customization for users.
The lack of novelty and uniqueness is the main problem of all the above solutions. They only solve the issue of decentralization and privacy, but for the vast majority of users, the list of their advantages is not long enough to overcome the complexity threshold that Web 3.0 accounts for even in the current (at the beginning of 2022) market conditions.
After analyzing the existing solutions, we came up with the following conclusions.
1. Solutions based on speculative models do not work because they do not give rise to new value (we are talking about social services. We do not consider the DeFi and DEX ecosystem in particular). Social services exist as long as people are interested in them. The opportunity to earn is an important factor, but secondary to the availability of targeted services. To do this, you need to pay not for what makes profit, but for what has practical benefits. Paying for profit growth only leads to the growth of synthetic assets which are meaningless for this category of services. Kalpagrama does not focus on the task of creating a platform for the accumulation of financial liquidity. For this, a number of solutions have already been implemented.
According to this logic, one can say that the decentralized social network Kalpagrama creates an accumulator of practical liquidity expressed in meanings and links. You can't make money just by investing or doing the "right thing" (as in Steemit). To make money, you need to create valuable content and/or reveal holistic meanings. Thus, practical liquidity grows. Financial liquidity is born at the moment of voting or buying content (and it fixes practical liquidity). 2. At the moment, there is an acute shortage of Web 3.0 solutions on the market that are of practical use. The implementation of speculative models in the short term can cause a surge in popularity, but in the future it will lead to stagnation. We believe that long-term success directly depends on the practical and ideological value of the project. For this reason, we decided to peg the value of the system token against one of the already existing coins that has its own value; and we plan to create our own digital currency in 2023. The value of the system will lie in the accumulated meanings and links and will be confirmed by their total capitalization expressed in external assets.
For convenience, we divide the project into two logical parts.
- 1.UI. This is everything the user interacts with and everything he or she sees. This part can be either centralized or decentralized. In addition, there may be several UIs developed by independent teams.
- 2.CORE. A fully decentralized blockchain solution. This is the underlying part of the project, containing the main mechanics. It is a repository of data and links that, through the blockchain technology lends credibility to them. This is the global knowledge map built by the community.
As a technology stack for the CORE implementation, one can choose any fast blockchain with low transaction costs, such as Solana, Polygon, etc. This is a very simple and fast solution. When creating any entity (semantic domain/semantic node/content/user), a smart contract is created that defines the rules of the game. A voting system where people vote on which meaning they perceive to be closest to the semantic node fulfills the functions of this contract. Ownership of some certain content is confirmed by NFTs.
Knowledge is capital. At the moment, we do not know of any system where this association is implemented directly. There are many projects where people who generate content get paid. But there are no real systems where an attempt would be made to monetise knowledge. Kalpagrama is a place where you can monetise your knowledge. The way we see it — knowledge is a product, and society is a customer.
The value of Bitcoin and Ethereum lies in the fact that significant computing power has been invested in them and it is not possible to simulate this (PoW). The rest of the assets are often of purely speculative value. The transition to PoS only makes sense for those systems that already have the value obtained in the previous stages.
We propose to confirm another type of value in the blockchain, that is, knowledge, and the Proof-of-Knowledge algorithm as a consensus algorithm. This algorithm is similar to Proof-of-Stake in its operation; however, the difference lies in the fact that the share is determined not by the amount of money, but by the level of knowledge which is confirmed in the blockchain by voting for semantic nodes and blocks. And this voting process, in turn, is confirmed by a third-party cryptocurrency with high liquidity.
It wouldn't be fair if the level of knowledge were a linear integral value. Thus, people who have earned money on "pictures with kitties" would have the same capital as people involved in solving critical scientific or social issues. Due to the abovementioned fact, the movement of cash flows begins at the moment of voting and they accumulate on meanings. And so, an elegant solution is born: to differentiate knowledge by meanings. This makes it possible to assess both capital intensity (meanings accumulate the capital) and competencies in various domains.
The capital in the system is accumulated through the contributions of voters at the time of voting. In this regard, mining in its classical sense is not required. The value of the system is equal to the value of external assets contributed to the system. Funds are distributed according to the rules prescribed in smart contracts. Transaction fees are received by addresses determined by the Proof-of-Knowledge algorithm.
A detailed technical description is beyond the scope of this document. Work on the second stage will begin in parallel with the first stage. Timescales and technical details will be adjusted and made publicly available in our github repository.
The bottleneck in terms of decentralization remains the content itself. For obvious reasons, it cannot be "hardwired" into a common database with transactions. However, a number of decentralized solutions for content storage are already available (IPFS, TON, PeerTube, Sia, Filecoin and the like). The description of the data storage subsystem implementation is beyond the scope of this document and will be provided separately.
To access the data stored in the blockchain, specialized services are required (front-end for decentralized data). However, such services may also include a server part where data processing and aggregation of issued queries will take place. For example, to upload a video to the system, it needs to be recorded. This is a time-consuming computational operation. In addition, a full blockchain node is too heavy for mobile devices. Data must be retrieved, processed, cached, categorized and aggregated. Anyone can develop their own GUI to access data stored on the Kalpagrama network. The first version of the GUI has already been implemented and is in beta testing mode (https://kalpa.app).
A priori, blockchain cannot be censored. However, we are living in an imperfect world. Violence and child abuse will require some kind of tagging by the community. The UI will enable the setting of age filters. What is more , we have no illusions and understand perfectly well that the political situation in some nation-states does not allow for the dissemination of certain information. Blockchain is non-negotiable in its nature. However, the GUI will mitigate this situation and provide a compromise. Some nation-states may accredit those GUIs that comply with their policies. The country will receive the required control, and people will have access to knowledge and the opportunity to accumulate it.
You can register as an independent vendor and work on the project blockchain, creating smart contracts that contain additional vendor logic (basic functionality is inherited). This means the project can be extended.
One can create referral smart contracts and make profit. To do this, an API will be developed and embedded in the base smart contract of the entity. The referral smart contract contains the referral address and the snippet code for placement in all popular social networks. When making transactions within this smart contract, a commission fee is sent to the referral address. In addition, the availability of special referral links is assumed. A clickthrough to the system using such a link is possible only when making a transaction with a commission fee to the referral.
We believe in the future of Web 3.0. We understand that by forcing users to register a wallet in some cases, we are limiting them and possibly depriving ourselves of certain audiences. However, on the other hand, this story is about the popularization of Web 3.0 ideas. We spur the user on by encouraging them to take the first steps into this new world so that they realize that in actual fact not everything is as difficult and inaccessible as it may first seem.
- White Paper
- Core Team
- Kalpagrama V0
- Community presale Round open
- Website redesign
- PR and Marketing plan
- Polygon/Polkadot/Solana grants Program
- Community presale Round close
- Private Round A open
- LaunchPad onboarding
- Private Round A close
- Smart Contract Audit
- Kalpagrama V1 (Decentralized Blockchain Rating System + Voting)
- LaunchPad and DEX Listing
- Staking Program
- Google Play + desktop
- Referral Program
- Kalpagrama V2 (Decentralized Blockchain Rating System + Voting)
- UGC + NFT
- Cooperation with copyright holders: e-book aggregators, international pool of copyright holders, online cinemas (video licensing, video hostings)
- App Store, native App
- NFT Marketplace
- Reward Program
- Kalpagrama V3 — DAO
- Coin release (Kalpa) — Sidechain Polygon — (Proof-of-Knowledge)
We are an international team of professionals working in the field of information security and blockchain technologies. The Kalpagrama project began in 2015 when we had the idea of a social network of collective thinking. It took almost 4 years to develop this idea, and it was only in 2018 when we started developing the technology behind the project. In February 2022, the main activities were completed and we created the first version of Kalpagrama, a social network of collective thinking. Now we have reached the point where all the basic features and algorithms function as they should (https://kalpa.app). We continue to work on the implementation of our idea; and this document describes in detail what, how and when we will achieve our plan over the medium-term horizon. As current events unfold, we will in time reveal the next stages of our development.
Blockchain (English block chain, means "a chain of blocks") is a distributed database built on the basis of blockchain technology. The connection between blocks of the same chain is ensured not only by numbering, but also by the fact that each block contains its own hash sum and the hash sum of the previous block. Copies of blockchains are stored on many different computers independently of each other. Clip thinking (English clip meaning "text fragment", "clipping") is a type of thinking, where a person receives fragmented information in short extracts and images, but has difficulty in concentrating and constantly skips from one piece of information to another. Proximity of the semantic node to the true, intrinsic meaning is a collective assessment of the accuracy of the semantic node, how accurately and succinctly the combination of the content and the text annotation (intrinsic meaning) reveals the true, intrinsic meaning being described. It also refers to the distance from the center of the semantic domain to the semantic node. Consensus algorithm is a mechanism by which the blockchain verifies the authenticity and fairness of transactions. DAO (decentralized autonomous organization (DAO) or decentralized autonomous corporation) is an organizational form, where the coordination of the participants' activities and the resources management take place in accordance with a pre-agreed and formalized set of rules, the enforcement of which is performed automatically. DEFI (decentralized financial services or decentralized finance) is a common name for equivalents of traditional financial instruments implemented in a decentralized architecture in the form of blockchain-based services and applications. These services are public, open-source and most often based on smart contracts. Front-end (English) is the client side of the user interface to the software and hardware part of the service. Gas is payment for transactions in the blockchain. The work of block validators in the blockchain is paid with gas. Intrinsic meaning is an absolute unattainable meaning that can be described with some accuracy by a set of local (subjective) meanings. The knowledge graph of Kalpagrama is a data structure in which information is presented in the form of a graph. In a knowledge graph, nodes are meanings, and edges contain relationships between them. NFT (English non-fungible token) is a type of cryptographic tokens, each copy of which is unique and cannot be exchanged or replaced by another similar token, although tokens are usually fungible in nature. PoK is a proof of knowledge in cryptography. It is an interactive proof in which the prover succeeds in 'convincing' a verifier that the prover knows something. What it means for a machine to 'know something' is defined in terms of computation. PoS (proof of stake) is a built-in consensus mechanism that is used by a cryptocurrency's network or validators. It cannot be earned, but you can help secure a network and earn rewards by using a cryptocurrency client that participates in PoS validating or becoming a validator. PoW is the first and most popular consensus algorithm used in blockchain networks. Proof of Work requires the miner (the user who creates the block), to solve a complex algorithmic problem with their own resources, thereby proving their right to create a block. Semantic domain is a set of semantic nodes that refer to people's associations derived from a concept. The true, intrinsic meaning is to be found in the center of the domain. Semantic nodes fill the domain. Semantic node consists of an image (a clip from a video, an extract from a book, etc.) and a text annotation describing the content. The semantic core reveals the essence of the image with some accuracy and is a subjective interpretation of the essence by the user. Smart contract (English) is a computer algorithm designed to generate, manage and provide information about the ownership of something. In this document, a smart contract is understood as a set of functions and data located at a specific address in the blockchain. Snippet is a preview of a website page that appears in search results. TGE stands for Token Generation Event. Web 3.0 is the third generation of the Internet, where the main role is played by blockchain technologies. According to the Web 3.0 philosophy, power will no longer be concentrated in the hands of large corporations and institutions. Web 3.0 provides users with full control over their online data.